Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive

Pauline Kleinberg - October 28, 1982


Pauline Kleinberg was born in Pilica, Poland. As a child she went to school and helped her parents run their dry goods store. After the war began, Pauline and her sister were forced to go to the Żarki ghetto where she contracted dysentery. After recovering, she and her sister escaped but were captured and taken to the Sosnowiec ghetto and from there to several labor camps. Pauline's sister died during a death march and Pauline was rescued by the Red Cross. She moved to the Fohrenwald DP camp where she was reunited with a younger sister. Pauline's family moved to the United States in 1950.

  1. Introduction
  2. Finding a Friend from Camp
  3. The Gestapo in Poland
  4. Death of Father
  5. The Family Business
  6. Family
  7. Judenrein
  8. Żarki
  9. Being Ill
  10. Siblings
  11. Shabbos
  12. Education
  13. Religion and Politics in Pilica
  14. Anti-Semitism
  15. Plans Before the War
  16. The Start of the War
  17. Start of War II
  18. Family's Reaction to War
  19. German Invasion
  20. Life Under German Occupation
  21. Head of the Judenrat
  22. Being Forced to Move out of Home
  23. Girl Warns Jews of Trouble Ahead
  24. Life with the Third Reich
  25. Sister In Hiding as Gentile
  26. Attempting to Hide Husband: Right, yeah.
  27. Hiding on a Polish Farm
  28. Seeing Father's Ghost Husband: The shema.
  29. Escaping to Sisters House Husband: Smuggle.
  30. Getting Help in Sosnowiec
  31. Being Transferred to Several Camps
  32. Being a Weaver
  33. Relation with Sister in the Camp
  34. Stealing in Camp
  35. Explanation of Camp Numbers
  36. Death March
  37. Death March II
  38. Abuse by SS Guards
  39. Almost Getting Killed
  40. Attempting to Escape
  41. Arrival at Helmbrecht
  42. Leaving Sister on Death March
  43. Being Abandoned by the SS Guards
  44. Being Saved by the Red Cross
  45. Learning of Sister's Fate
  46. Saying Goodbye to Sister
  47. Living in Fohrenwald Displaced Persons Camp
  48. Reuniting with a Family Friend
  49. Hearing about Fate of Older Sister
  50. Being Taken Care of by Cousins
  51. Hearing Word of Younger Sister
  52. Being Reunited with Younger Sister
  53. Getting Married in DP Camp
  54. Going back to Pilica
  55. Discovering Fate of Townspeople
  56. Moving to the United States
  57. Life in the United States
  58. Life in New Orleans
  59. Dealing with Segregation
  60. Moving to Detroit
  61. Health Problems
  62. Views on Religion
  63. Teaching the Holocaust
  64. Survivor's Guilt
  65. Sharing Story
  66. Sharing Story II
  67. Mental Health After Experience
  68. Thoughts on Israel
  69. Visiting Israel
  70. Meeting Friend in Camp
  71. Visiting Yad Vashem
  72. Memories
  73. Memories II
  74. Interviewing Survivors
  75. Memories III
  76. Getting Favor of German Jew in Camp
  77. Wanting Husband to Share Story
  78. Moving to Florida
  79. B'nai B'rith Survivor Organization
  80. Conclusion

© Board of Regents University of Michigan-Dearborn