Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive

Maximilian Kowler - April 26, 1984


Maximilian Kowler was born in Vienna, Austria. After the Anschluß, Max and his father escaped to Venice. Once his mother joined them in Italy, the family snuck over the Italian border into France and settled in Lyon as refugees. Max was involved with the French Boy Scouts until he joined the French Army. After a bicycle accident that left him hospitalized, Max and his parents went to Switzerland where they were placed in a refugee camp. After the war, Max moved back to France where he met and married his wife before moving his family to the United States.

  1. Introduction
  2. Sneaking into France
  3. Fate of Family
  4. Life in Lyon
  5. Experiencing Anti-Semitism
  6. Joining the French Army
  7. Returning to Lyon
  8. Thoughts on the French
  9. Life in Vichy France
  10. Hearing News of Treatment of Jews
  11. Work During the War
  12. Avoiding the Gestapo
  13. Returning to Lyon After the War
  14. Searching for Old Friends
  15. Meeting French Rescuer
  16. Being Hospitalized
  17. Sneaking into Switzerland
  18. Life in Switzerland
  19. Resistance
  20. Help from Gentiles
  21. Help from Gentiles II
  22. Work After the War
  23. Politics
  24. Fate of Parents and Life After the War
  25. The Exodus
  26. Sharing Story
  27. Speaking About the Holocaust
  28. Speaking About the Holocaust II
  29. Sharing Story II
  30. Memories
  31. Klaus Barbie Trial
  32. Conclusion

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